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English Posts

Biosignal Amplifier

Abstract : in this post we want to illustrate the construction of a biosignal amplifier based on the INA128 chip which integrates an instrumentation amplifier inside. The detection of biosignals, with their low “signal to noise” ratio, presents characteristic aspects that require careful use of electronics. We based ourselves on an …

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Muography DIY

Introduction Our friend Antonio Zanardo has carried out an interesting experiment with cosmic rays : “muography”. In this post we will describe its realization. MUOGRAPHY what is it? It is a radiographic technique used to obtain images of objects, generally of large dimensions, otherwise unattainable with other procedures (X-Rays). The …

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Raspberry Pi Sense HAT

The Sense HAT Expansion Card (Reference La Scienza con il Raspberry pi – Marco Casolino) One of the most interesting features of the Raspberry – which differentiates it from a simple low-cost computer – is that it can be connected to a series of sensors and actuators via the digital ports …

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Cosmic Rays Rate Monitoring

Introduction Some time ago in our laboratory we built a cosmic ray detector based on plastic scintillator and PMT : Scintillation Detector for Cosmic Muons. The goal was to experiment with this type of detectors and make cosmic rays flux measurements at various altitudes : Cosmic Rays on the Dolomites. …

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Micod Geiger Detector Driver

The latest “born” at Micod is a driver for Geiger-Muller tubes. It is a circuit (shown in the image above) which has the function of providing the high voltage (400 or 500 V) necessary to drive a Geiger tube. The driver is characterized by numerous features : Supply voltage between …

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Muon Telescope

Introduction Cosmic rays have already been the subject of numerous posts. In PhysicsOpenLab we have built numerous detectors based on Geiger tubes, on PMT coupled with scintillators, on the Cerenkov effect and also on the use of solid state sensors such as SiPM. In this post we want to resume …

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Albania Earthquake

A strong earthquake struck, in the night of November 26th, the area of ​​northern Albania. Our seismological instrumentation (seismometer and geophones) recorded the main event and the subsequent seismic swarm with numerous replicas (some of them of high intensity). On the same day there was also a violent shock in …

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RasPI ADC Logger

Introduction To acquire and subsequently process analog data from sensors, it is necessary to use an Analog – Digital converter : an ADC card. The possible solutions are manifold. For example, it is possible to use a PSoC chip that provides ADC components, acquire the data and subsequently transmit the …

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Double Helix & Optical Diffraction Pattern

Introduction In this Post we describe our attempt to replicate the experiment on X-ray diffraction by the DNA molecule. This experimental research, conducted at the time by Rosalind Franklin, allowed us to understand the structure of the DNA molecule. Of course working with X-rays and with “crystallized” DNA molecules is …

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Thyratron based Franck-Hertz Experiment

Introduction With a triode for high currents (known as Thyratron) it is possible to reproduce, albeit in a simplified manner, the famous Franck – Hertz experiment of 1914, which provided one of the first direct tests of the quantized model of atomic energy levels. The experimental apparatus used by Franck …

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PicoAmmeter

Measurement of very small Currents To measure the intensity of an electric current it is necessary to insert an ammeter in series with the circuit, so that the current measured on the ammeter is identical to the current that originally flows in the circuit under examination. Ideally, the ammeter has …

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Geophonic Seismic Traces

Comparison between Geophone and Seismometer The three geophones we used for the construction of the Geophonic Seismometer are very sensitive instruments. Their natural frequency (mechanical resonance frequency) is about 4.5 Hz. At frequencies lower than 1 Hz the response is very attenuated, while it remains fairly constant even at higher …

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Geophonic Seismometer

Geophone In a series of previous posts we have described a horizontal pendulum seismometer: Horizontal Pendulum Seismometer Seismometer : Read-out Electronics Seismometer Traces The one described above is a seismometer with a medium-long period (about 5 sec) suitable for the detection especially of remote earthquakes (telesisms). Neighboring – and weak …

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Seismic Traces

In this post we describe the seismic monitoring activity carried out with the PhysicsOpenLab seismometer. The tool has been described in the posts : Horizontal Pendulum Seismometer, Seismometer : Read-out Electronics. The geographic position of our seismic station has the following data : Latitude : 46° 04′ 01” N (46.067 …

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Seismometer : Read-out Electronics

LVDT Sensor The seismometer position sensor is an LVDT type transducer (inductive displacement transducer). This transducer is an electrical device that allows the measurement of a linear displacement. The transducer is usually made of a tube with three windings arranged with parallel axes and with a mobile ferromagnetic cylindrical core …

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