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Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM)

The silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) is a radiation detector with extremely high sensitivity, high efficiency, and very low time jitter. It is based on reversed biased p/n diodes, it can directly detect light from near ultra violet to near infrared, and it is employed in all those applications where low light/radiation …

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Beta Radioactivity

A beta particle, sometimes called beta ray, denoted by the lower-case Greek letter beta (β), is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted in the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus, such as a potassium-40 nucleus, in the process of beta decay. Two forms of beta decay, β− and β+, respectively produce electrons and positrons. Beta particles are a type of ionizing radiation. …

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Gamma (γ) Radioactivity

Gamma radiation is one of the three types of natural radioactivity. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, like X-rays.  The other two types of natural radioactivity are alpha and beta radiation, which are in the form of particles.   Gamma rays are the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation, with a …

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Alpha (α) Radioactivity

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus. They are generally produced in the process of alpha decay, but may also be produced in other ways. The symbol for the alpha particle is α or α2+. Because they are …

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Positron Annihilation

The positron (or anti-electron also called) is the antiparticle of electron. It has electric charge +1 equal and opposite to the electron, spin 1/2 and the same mass. The positrons were discovered in cosmic rays by Carl Anderson in 1932 (photograph above). Patrick Blackett and Giuseppe Occhialini completed the discovery the following …

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Radioactive Decay Time Measurement

The exact moment when an unstable atom will decay into a more stable is considered random and unpredictable. What can you do, given a sample of a particular isotope, it is to note that the number of decays follows a precise statistical law.

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Radon

Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86. It is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, occurring naturally as a decay product of radium.

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