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Cosmic Rays Electromagnetic Cascade

Introduction The Earth is being continuously bombarded by high energy particles from deep space. The particles are mainly high energy protons together with a small component of helium nuclei, heavier nuclei and electrons. The energy range is enormous with some particles having energies of the order 1020 eV.

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SiPM & Plastic Scintillator

In this post we propose the use of plastic scintillators coupled to SiPM for the detection of particles. A detector of this type is particularly sensitive to charged particles and thus can be used for the detection of cosmic muons and for the detection of electrons produced by β radioactivity.

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SiPM Preamplifier

In this post we are going to describe the use of the AdvanSiD preamplifier for silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The SiPM were the subject of the following post : silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), in which the part of the signal amplification has been realized with discrete components.

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10.525GHz Microwave Motion Sensor Module

A microwave beam can also be easily generated with the HB100 module which is mainly used as a motion sensor . It is a motion sensor module in the microwave X-band, it has a resonance oscillator and a pair of microstrip patch type antennas , this sensor is ideal for …

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Microwaves Optics

With the help of the microwave generator, described in the post Gunnplexer & Microwaves, one can easily do some “optical” experiments to describe the behavior of these 3cm electromagnetic waves.

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Electromagnetic Waves Polarization

In physics, the polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a characteristic of the electromagnetic waves and indicates the oscillation direction of the electric field vector during the wave propagation in space – time (the magnetic field will be polarized along the direction orthogonal to that of the electric field and to the …

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Gunnplexer & Microwaves

The Gunnplexer system is a combination of a microwave oscillator (based on the Gunn diode) with a mixer (Schottky diode). There are some variations on this architecture, but each Gunnplexer system has at least these components. In the Gunnplexer operating at 10 GHz and at higher frequencies, the entire microwave system …

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PIN Diode Radiation Detector

A PIN diode (p-type, intrinsic, n-type diode) is a diode with a wide region of intrinsic semiconductor material (undoped) contained between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor. The advantage of a PIN diode is that the depletion region exists almost completely within the intrinsic region, which has a constant …

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