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English Posts

SiPM Preamplifier

In this post we are going to describe the use of the AdvanSiD preamplifier for silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The SiPM were the subject of the following post : silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), in which the part of the signal amplification has been realized with discrete components.

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10.525GHz Microwave Motion Sensor Module

A microwave beam can also be easily generated with the HB100 module which is mainly used as a motion sensor . It is a motion sensor module in the microwave X-band, it has a resonance oscillator and a pair of microstrip patch type antennas , this sensor is ideal for …

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Microwaves Optics

With the help of the microwave generator, described in the post Gunnplexer & Microwaves, one can easily do some “optical” experiments to describe the behavior of these 3cm electromagnetic waves.

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Electromagnetic Waves Polarization

In physics, the polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a characteristic of the electromagnetic waves and indicates the oscillation direction of the electric field vector during the wave propagation in space – time (the magnetic field will be polarized along the direction orthogonal to that of the electric field and to the …

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Gunnplexer & Microwaves

The Gunnplexer system is a combination of a microwave oscillator (based on the Gunn diode) with a mixer (Schottky diode). There are some variations on this architecture, but each Gunnplexer system has at least these components. In the Gunnplexer operating at 10 GHz and at higher frequencies, the entire microwave system …

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PIN Diode Radiation Detector

A PIN diode (p-type, intrinsic, n-type diode) is a diode with a wide region of intrinsic semiconductor material (undoped) contained between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor. The advantage of a PIN diode is that the depletion region exists almost completely within the intrinsic region, which has a constant …

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Heavy Metals XRF Spectra

Besides that with the source Americium 241 at 60keV (as described in the post DIY XRF Spectrometry) the XRF technique is also feasible with other gamma excitation sources such as the isotope Na22 which emits at 511keV. In this case the sample is positioned between the detector and the source, as …

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Light as a Particle

In this post we propose to highlight the quantum nature of light by means of the photon counting technique. For the light detection has been used a photomultiplier tube, which is able to detect a single photon. A dimmed LED driven by an ultra-short pulse has been used as light source.

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XRF Mineral Analysis

We propose, in this post, the use of XRF spectrometer, previously described, for the analysis of some minerals in order to identify the contained elements.

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