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Gunnplexer & Microwaves

The Gunnplexer system is a combination of a microwave oscillator (based on the Gunn diode) with a mixer (Schottky diode). There are some variations on this architecture, but each Gunnplexer system has at least these components. In the Gunnplexer operating at 10 GHz and at higher frequencies, the entire microwave system …

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PIN Diode Radiation Detector

A PIN diode (p-type, intrinsic, n-type diode) is a diode with a wide region of intrinsic semiconductor material (undoped) contained between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor. The advantage of a PIN diode is that the depletion region exists almost completely within the intrinsic region, which has a constant …

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Heavy Metals XRF Spectra

Besides that with the source Americium 241 at 60keV (as described in the post DIY XRF Spectrometry) the XRF technique is also feasible with other gamma excitation sources such as the isotope Na22 which emits at 511keV. In this case the sample is positioned between the detector and the source, as …

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Light as a Particle

In this post we propose to highlight the quantum nature of light by means of the photon counting technique. For the light detection has been used a photomultiplier tube, which is able to detect a single photon. A dimmed LED driven by an ultra-short pulse has been used as light source.

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XRF Mineral Analysis

We propose, in this post, the use of XRF spectrometer, previously described, for the analysis of some minerals in order to identify the contained elements.

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XRF Elemental Analysis

We propose, in this post, the use of XRF spectrometer, described previously, for the elemental analysis of some significant samples of elements.

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DIY X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic “secondary” (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays. The phenomenon is widely used for elemental analysis and chemical analysis, particularly in the investigation of metals, glass, ceramics and building materials, and for research in geochemistry, forensic science and archaeology.

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