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English Posts

Tel-X-Ometer Equipment

Recently we acquired a “vintage” equipment, rather old but in full working order : it is the Tel-X-Ometer x-ray diffractometer. A Tel-X-Ometer is an X-ray diffraction system device which is used to detect the absorption and reflection of X-rays i.e. a spectrometer. The device employs an X-ray tube with copper …

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X-Ray Diffraction DIY

With the X-ray tube we have recently acquired we want to try to make a diffractometer ! Introduction X-ray diffraction is one of the most important techniques for the study of crystalline solids. The X-ray diffraction technique is based on coherent elastic scattering : the macroscopic phenomenon of diffraction arises …

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PSoC Controlled SiPM detector

The front-end electronics for the acquisition of the signals produced by SiPM (post Front-end Electronics for SiPM) can be conveniently interfaced with a PSoC microcontroller that performs the following functions: Analog signal reading from potentiometer for SiPM bias voltage configuration; Analog reference signal generation for the generation of SiPM bias voltage; …

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Front-end Electronics for SiPM

We have already described in some previous posts examples of projects with SiPM (SiPM Preamplifier, SiPM Gamma Detector , Broadband Amplifier for PMT and SiPM). In this post we want to describe an example of front-end electronics based on a voltage amplifier and a peak & hold circuit designed to read …

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Programmable Power Suppy for SiPM Bias

Basic SiPM Structure and Operation As we know a SiPM consists of a matrix of small-sized sensitive elements called micro-cells (or pixels) all connected in parallel. Each micro-cell is a Geiger-Mode avalanche photo-diode (GM-APD) working beyond the breakdown voltage (Vbd) and it integrates a resistor for passive quenching. The equivalent …

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Portable Radiation Detector

The purpose of this project is to build a small portable radiation detector with the possibility of being connected to an android smartphone. There are many “apps” available on the google play store that are thought to transform the smartphone into an advanced radiation detector, but to accomplish all this you …

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X-Ray Generator

An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays. X-ray tubes evolved from experimental Crookes tubes with which X-rays were first discovered on November 8, 1895, by the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. The availability of this controllable source of X-rays created the field of radiography, the imaging of partly opaque objects with penetrating radiation. In …

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Photogates with Theremino

Two “general purpose” photodiodes, two LEDs, some front-end electronics for photodiode reading, and a Theremino master are the tools to create a pair of photogates that can be used for many educational demonstrations in the field of the kinematics. There are so many solutions available on the market (hardware + …

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Photonuclear / Compton Scattering Cross Section Ratio

Theory We propose an experiment presented in the CAEN educational catalog. The purpose of the experiment is the determination of the ratio of the effective cross-sections due to Compton and Photoelectric effects as a function of photons energy. In the energy range up to 2 MeV, gamma rays interact with …

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SiPM with BGO Scintillator Crystal

From EPIC Crystal Co. we received two scintillator crystals BGO (Bismuth Germanate – Bi4Ge3O12) with cylindrical shape with 6 mm diameter and length 10 mm. With these crystals we would like to try to build a SiPM based radiation detector for beta and  gamma radiation. The BGO scintillato has been described in …

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