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Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Crystal

Sodium chloride, also known as salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contain 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. The salient features of its structure are: Chloride ions are ccp type of arrangement, i.e., it contains chloride …

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X-Ray Absorption

One of the first x-rays properties inspected was the ability of x-rays to penetrate solid matter. It has been found that materials such as gases, wood and rubber absorb relatively few x-rays. Conversely, even very thin sheets of heavy metals such as lead or platinum absorb nearly all x-rays incident …

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Laue Diffraction

Laue diffraction pattern, in X rays, a regular array of spots on a photographic emulsion resulting from X rays scattered by certain groups of parallel atomic planes within a crystal. When a thin, pencil-like beam of X rays is allowed to impinge on a crystal, those of certain wavelengths will be …

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Bragg Diffraction

Bragg diffraction (also referred to as the Bragg formulation of X-ray diffraction) was first proposed by William Lawrence Bragg and his father William Henry Bragg in 1913 in response to their discovery that crystalline solids produced surprising patterns of reflected X-rays (in contrast to that of, say, a liquid). They found that these crystals, at certain specific wavelengths and incident …

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Tel-X-Ometer Equipment

Recently we acquired a “vintage” equipment, rather old but in full working order : it is the Tel-X-Ometer x-ray diffractometer. A Tel-X-Ometer is an X-ray diffraction system device which is used to detect the absorption and reflection of X-rays i.e. a spectrometer. The device employs an X-ray tube with copper …

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X-Ray Diffraction DIY

With the X-ray tube we have recently acquired we want to try to make a diffractometer ! Introduction X-ray diffraction is one of the most important techniques for the study of crystalline solids. The X-ray diffraction technique is based on coherent elastic scattering : the macroscopic phenomenon of diffraction arises …

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PSoC Controlled SiPM detector

The front-end electronics for the acquisition of the signals produced by SiPM (post Front-end Electronics for SiPM) can be conveniently interfaced with a PSoC microcontroller that performs the following functions: Analog signal reading from potentiometer for SiPM bias voltage configuration; Analog reference signal generation for the generation of SiPM bias voltage; …

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Front-end Electronics for SiPM

We have already described in some previous posts examples of projects with SiPM (SiPM Preamplifier, SiPM Gamma Detector , Broadband Amplifier for PMT and SiPM). In this post we want to describe an example of front-end electronics based on a voltage amplifier and a peak & hold circuit designed to read …

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Programmable Power Suppy for SiPM Bias

Basic SiPM Structure and Operation As we know a SiPM consists of a matrix of small-sized sensitive elements called micro-cells (or pixels) all connected in parallel. Each micro-cell is a Geiger-Mode avalanche photo-diode (GM-APD) working beyond the breakdown voltage (Vbd) and it integrates a resistor for passive quenching. The equivalent …

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Portable Radiation Detector

The purpose of this project is to build a small portable radiation detector with the possibility of being connected to an android smartphone. There are many “apps” available on the google play store that are thought to transform the smartphone into an advanced radiation detector, but to accomplish all this you …

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