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Cathode Ray Tube Experiments

A Crookes tube is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered. Developed from the earlier Geissler tube, the Crookes tube consists of a partially evacuated glass bulb of various shapes, with two …

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The Rutherford-Geiger-Marsden Experiment

What made by Rutherford and his assistants Geiger and Marsden is perhaps one of the most important experiments of nuclear physics. The experiments were performed between 1908 and 1913 by Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden under the direction of Ernest Rutherford at the Physical Laboratories of the University of Manchester. …

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Smart Materials : Ferrofluids & Magnetic Levitation

A ferrofluid is a material that belongs to the category of nanostructured materials: it is actually a colloidal solution containing ferromagnetic nanoparticles. For this characteristic it behaves like a magnet, but a liquid magnet! From Wikipedia : a ferrofluid is a liquid that becomes strongly magnetized in the presence of a magnetic …

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ECG with Theremino

With Theremino, with the component AD8232 and the software SignalScope you can easily build a small amateur electrocardiograph. In this post we will describe this equipment and show some examples of the charts that can be obtained. Electrocardiogram In general terms, the electrocardiogram is a graphic representation of the electrical activity …

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Statistics of Radiation Counting

Introduction A typical situation in which comes in the Poisson distribution is the study of a process of radioactive decay. In this circumstance, the number of trials is made by the number of nuclei that potentially may decay and is very large (for one mole of radioactive material the number …

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Backscattering of Beta Particles

Introduction When a β-particle (energetic electron from nuclear decay) enters a material its path can be deflected when it interacts with the nuclei of the material. The β-particles are oppositely charged to the positively charged nucleus and thus an attractive force exists between the two. The deflections that result are dependent …

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Detecting Radon with a Balloon

This experiment was first explained by Austen and Brouwer (1997). It can be used to show how the air has naturally low levels of radioactive material in it, and that this decays over time. It is also a demonstration that our environment has low levels of radioactivity, mainly due to the …

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DIY Neutron Detector

Introduction With neutrons we enter the “heart” of nuclear physics. As known it is a sub-atomic particles contained in the nucleus, they are characterized by a mass slightly superior to that of the proton and neutral charge. Outside the nucleus, neutrons are unstable and have a half-life of about 15 minutes. …

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NDVI Index

What is NDVI Index ? (Contribute from Alessio Giusti @flybri) Live green plants absorb solar radiation in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectral region, which they use as a source of energy in the process of photosynthesis. Leaf cells have also evolved to re-emit solar radiation in the near-infrared spectral …

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Cosmic Rays on the Dolomites

The link between cosmic rays and mountains has always been tight. Since the beginning of the research it was clear that cosmic rays, coming from deep space, are absorbed by gases in the atmosphere and that they reach the ground modified and weakened. The primary cosmic rays, mainly composed by …

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