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Fast LED Light Pulser & SiPM

Introduction Generating ultra-short pulses (in our case pulses of light) is not simple. There are advanced techniques to produce ultra-short light pulses, in the femtosecond or even attosecond range , but they require sophisticated lasers and equipment that are not within the reach of a “home” experimenter. Not to mention …

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High Voltage – Low Noise Module

A low-noise medium-high voltage generator is always of great use in the laboratory : it is used for the powering of photomultiplier tubes, geiger counters, ionization chambers, solid state sensors for radiation, etc …. However the construction of a component of this type is not simple. An example of a …

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Chaos

Introduction Today, at least for mathematicians and physicists, the word chaos has a rather precise and deterministic meaning. Chaos, or deterministic chaos, is the science that studies the great effects caused by small causes. Or, in more rigorous terms, it is the science that studies the dynamics of non-linear systems …

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Piezoelectricity and Piroelectricity

(Piezoelectric floor) Piezoelectricity Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure. French physicists Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered piezoelectricity in 1880. The piezoelectric effect results from the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical …

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Cadmium zinc telluride CZT based gamma-ray detector

(Image from Kromek) Introduction Cadmium zinc telluride CZT is a room temperature semiconductor that directly converts x-ray or gamma photons into electrons and holes. It is a unique semiconductor compared with silicon and germanium detectors, in that cadmium zinc telluride CZT operates at room temperature and can process >100 million photons …

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Alpha Detector with Micod CSA-SA

In this post we want to test the alpha radiation detector built by “AlexDetector” and marketed by the russian company Micod with the related front-end electronics, consisting of a charge preamplifier (CSA) and shaping amplifier (SA). Introduction Alpha Spectrometry is a fascinating technique because it allows you to have accurate information about …

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Photodiode and CsI(Tl) Scintillator with Micod CSA-SA

Introduction In this post we describe a silicon photodiode coupled to a CsI(Tl) scintillator used as radiation detector. This application is well known and we have covered a similar field in this post : Si-PIN Photodiode with Micod CSA-SA, now we would like to test the apparatus built by Micod (a …

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Light Speed Measure with a Time-of-Flight (ToF) Sensor

Introduction The VL53L0X is a new generation Time-of-Flight (ToF) laser-ranging module housed in the smallest package on the market today, providing accurate distance measurement whatever the target reflectances unlike conventional technologies. It can measure absolute distances up to 2m, setting a new benchmark in ranging performance levels, opening the door …

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X-Ray Fiber Diffraction

Introduction (From Wikipedia) Fiber diffraction is a subarea of scattering, an area in which molecular structure is determined from scattering data (usually of X-rays, electrons or neutrons). In fiber diffraction the scattering pattern does not change, as the sample is rotated about a unique axis (the fiber axis). Such uniaxial symmetry is …

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XRD on Powders

Introduction In x-ray diffraction work we normally distinguish between single crystal and polycrystalline or powder applications. The single crystal sample is a perfect (all unit cells aligned in a perfect extended pattern) crystal with a cross section of about 0.3 mm. The single crystal diffractometer and associated computer package is …

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